GJENNOMFØRING AV MAKKAH TID
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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MAKKAH TIME
The Makkah time during extreme period is a well known and an old solution. However, it is also well known that people has different understanding on how to apply Makkah time during the extreme period. This document is intended to describe the most suitable procedure on how the Makkah time should be implemented.
Solar time is a reckoning of the passage of time based on the Sun's position in the sky. The fundamental unit of solar time is the day. Fix a tall pole vertically in the ground; at some instant on any sunny day the shadow will point exactly north or south (or disappear, if the Sun is directly overhead). That instant is local apparent noon: 12:00 local apparent time. About 24 hours later the shadow will again point north/south, the Sun seeming to have covered a 360-degree arc around the Earth's axis. When the Sun has covered exactly 15 degrees (1/24 of a circle, both angles being measured in a plane perpendicular to the Earth's axis), local apparent time is 13:00 exactly; after 15 more degrees it will be 14:00 exactly.
Prior to the introduction of standard time, each municipality throughout the civilized world set its official clock, according to the local position of the Sun (see solar time). This served adequately until the introduction of rail travel in Britain, which made it possible to travel fast enough over long distances to require continuous re-setting of timepieces as a train progressed in its daily run through several towns. Greenwich Mean Time, where all clocks in Britain were set to the same time, was established to solve this problem. Chronometers or telegraphy were used to synchronize these clocks.
Standard time, as originally proposed by Scottish-Canadian Sir Sandford Fleming in 1879, divided the world into twenty-four time zones, each one covering 15 degrees of longitude. All clocks within each zone would be set to the same time as the others, but differed by one hour from those in the neighboring zones. The local time at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England was chosen as standard at the 1884 International Meridian Conference, leading to the widespread use of Greenwich Mean Time to set local clocks. This location was chosen because by 1884 two-thirds of all nautical charts and maps already used it as their prime meridian.
A time zone is a region that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. It is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time, so time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (for example Nepal Standard Time is UTC +05:45). Some higher latitude countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by changing clocks by an hour.
Daylight saving time (DST) or summer time is the practice of advancing clocks during the summer months that have more daylight so that people get up earlier in the morning and experience more daylight in the evening. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in the autumn.
If we imagine all Muslims in this world as one, then the call for prayer, i.e. adzan, is never end. Every single second, throughout the day and night, there always be Muslim who call for salat. This is gracefully illustrated in the following video. Any estimated prayer times methodology must hold this beauty and harmony, no matter what!
A standard procedure of the implementation of Makkah time is as follows:
- Set the latitude as latitude of Makkah.
- Set the longitude as local longitude of the city in question.
- Calculate the prayer times according to solar time based on latitude and longitude defined in stage 1 and 2.
- Transform the solar time into the local time by incorporating information of time zone and daylight saving time.
- Estimated prayer times based on Makkah time is ready.
If we apply the standard procedure of the implementation of Makkah time as outlined above, we will achieve the following benefit:
- The day is anchored to noon or local Dhuhr time.
- Accordingly, the day will be symmetric correspond to local noon time.
- The prayer time proportion in Makkah is obtained.
- The length of fasting is the same as in Makkah.
- The beauty and harmony of adzan as described above is maintained. The disruption of the beauty and harmony of adzan due to the time zone arrangement can be avoided.